Antonio Arnaiz LagoIndex:
All these prototypes belong to a variety of robots mobile that it is designate generically CS (Creatures simple). The term Creatures Simple is the name given for Valentino Braitenberg to a collection of small robots developed for he same. These mechanisms constitute a first approximation to the world of the robots mobile. With this type of mechanisms it is try of to prove as reacciónan systems mobile simple before the presence of determined stimuli (light, sound, temperature etc.) well when these stimuli appear for separated or well when it is give several of they simultaneously. This type of robots share between yes a series of carácteristicas that the define and that we could to list them as continues:
- Reacciónan before one several stimuli, stimuli such as the sound, the light, objects etc.
- They can be systems extremely simple (wirings) or to contain some type of controlling (microprocessor).
- Not implement no mechanism of learning, evolutionary, etc.
- Not receive no type of "it help" foreign for its operation.
They are systems with the that it is intend basically to extract conclusions about of the behavior that they can to have systems of type mobile, in presence of magnitude physical existing in the world real (physical). These conclusions will serve as criteria of design for the authentic Robots Mobile.
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With this simple model, it is they have obtained the following conclusions:
CS-EO (Creature Simple, stimulus Darkness) fué our first prototype and it is built in February of 1995.
Is a "Robot Mobile" extremely simple, already that neither even account with a system of control that it is could to consider "intelligent" or "sophisticateded". It is try basically of two motor mounted in a chásis and a small circuit electronic that invest the sense of movement of one of they (polarity) when the intensity luminous that is detected for a cell photoelectric fall for below of a certain value. Puede it be observed with greater detail in this photograph.
- The position of determined sensors (cells photoelectric in this case) influence notably in the behavior final of the model.
- The cells photoelectric they are sensors perfectly valid for guíar models using the light normal (in the range of it visible, light natural, lamparas of incandescence, fluorescent etc.), resulting this type of sensor extremely inexpensive and easy of to handle, with it that not is accurate to appeal to other type of sensor more complex (fototransistores etc.) if it that it is wish is to stimulate a Robot with sources of light of this type.
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CS-THE ( Creature Simple, Stimulus Luminosity ) it is built in May of 1996.
It is try of a prototype in the same line that the CS-EO, is to say its only stimulus is the light, without embargo its behavior is different. This prototype seek desperately the light. For this use two cells photoelectric (such and as it is puede to appreciate in this photograph, it is find to both sides, in the part frontal of the robot).
Through the comparison of the values of tension obtained from the two celulas, the robot determine where it is find the zone of greater luminosity that to him surround and in base to this acts on the motor, guiding the course toward the zone of greater intensity luminous. This process require of a certain control, of manner that the controlling of the robot it is implemented using a microprocessor, in this case a 80C31, the which transact all the systems of the robot (conversor A/D, controlling of the motor etc).
It is there is equipped in the part frontal of the robot some small micro switches that act to manner of primitive "antennae sensoras", these antennae simply have the mission of to indicate to the robot when it is crash frontalmente with some object, in that case, to the be detected a object, the robot will invest its movimento (will go toward back) during a certain time, for thereinafter it be reoriented and to resume of new the sense of the march. This procedure of "to draw" obstacles, if well is quite simple and not would serve for example for a robot that it be attempting to follow a determined route, is valid in this case already that with this prototype only it is try of to prove the response before the light and not of to study algorithms or procedures of sorteamiento of obstacles.
For other part the robot it is programmed for to detect a situation of "night", is to say when not is possible to find a quantity minimal of light in nigún point around of the same. In this case, the robot it is will inhibit staying aletargado during a time fixed, elapsed the which it is will activate for to prove if there is ghost some point of light in its around, of be thus will abandon the situation of lethargy, for it be directed to said point, if for the opposite the situation of darkness persists, will return to the cycle of lethargy and thus sucesivamente.
As detail curious fit to emphasize that it is there is used a mouse of ordering as chásis of the robot for it that it is puede to understand the reduced size of the same.
With this model, it is they have obtained between other, the following conclusions:
- The utilization of two cells photoelectric as mechanism of direction is a method efficient for to determine zones of light.
- The incorporation of filters for the samples obtained from the sensors permit to vary notably the behavior of the robot. Accomplishing operations of type AND, OR logical of the samples with mascaras predeterminadases possible to obtain behaviors very different , from a predilection for the zones luminous until the effect opposite.
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CS-EMA they are the abbreviations of a robot that intend to implement capacities advanced within of the field of the robots mobile. With this model it is intend to implement a robot evoluciónado that possess:
- Capacity of survival. Through this characteristic, the robot it will be able to find and to receive the energy specify for its operation, without it help foreign, this energy it will be the that to him permit to follow operating ininterrumpidamente. It is there is elected as source energetic ideal the light solar, for it that it is will equip to the robot with a panel solar, the which will permit to accomplish this operation.
- Capacity of learning. It is intend that the robot implement certain capacities of learning, this is, capacity of to learn and reacciónar before determined situations that it is to him outline during its displacement for the environment that certify its habitat.
- Capacity evolutionary. In a phase more advanced and always that the capacities of learning implemented it permit, it is intend to incorporate to the model of a certain degree of capacity evolutionary, this is, capacity for to vary its methods of survival it being based in the data that originate of the mechanism of learning, report of events and of its own resources physical.
In the present time it is it is drafting the document of Specification of Requirements, that will contain the specification of the Robot and the of the middle ambient in the that will develop its operations.
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It is offer several documents in format postscript (.ps) that describe the prototypes implemented:
Documentation technical vast
- Documentation Technical CS-EO.
- Documentation Technical Servos Futaba.
- Documentation Technical CS-THE
These documents it is they can to obtain in the section of download.
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