Manuel de la Herrán Gascón

En obras


The laws of the evolution, essence of the AGs, it is they can to explain with a joke bad. A disease that produces sterility with difficulty it will be able be hereditary. Of equal form, a smaller adjustment to the middle tend to go accompanied of a smaller reproduction, it that suppose a smaller spread genetic of that lack of adjustment (if is that this it is puede to store genetically). A greater adjustment to the middle it is will associate in many cases to a greater reproduction, and it is will propagate if exist a by genetic for this.

Other example: many animal accustom to to accomplish a "bite affectionate" as part of the ceremonial of the coitus. But, for example, the serpents poisonous not it make. If it made, the males soon they would have finished with all the female, poisoning them. The evolution alone permit "to survive" to those plans (manners of life, genes, kinds, costubres) that they are "autoconsistentes", "not autodestructivos", that have a trend to it be maintained live.

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Stability, inertia and recurrencia

The evolution of the beings live or of the beings live artificial is a case particular of a concept yet more simple and powerful that it is would to call of the stability, the inertia or the recurrencia. Any thing existing is probably stable, already that if not it would be stable, probably would disappear or would change until to arrive to that state stable, and already not would be that "thing" (stability). For so much, any thing existing probably follows existing as already it it is making (inertia).

These amused arguments they are recursivos, for it that more that arguments, it is try of axioms or acts of fé. The selection natural is "the survival of it that survive" and the stability it is apply to the "things" and the "things" they should be stable for be such "things".

If the "thing" varies continually, then is stable in its variation continuous, and the essence of the thing is the form -constant- in that it is produce the changes, is to say, the recurrencia. If in the changes not it is they could to find regularities, is to say, if the thing not varies according to a norm, for very complex that it will be, we would be before a random pure, and transgressing the axiom of that for be "thing" is necessary a certain stability, inertia or recurrencia, and this "thing" not would be a object of our universe.

The evolution seem to fulfil solely the norm of "be stable in its variation continuous". The motor of the evolution is the imbalance that suppose a greater (but not absolute) trend to the survival (as individual and as progenitor) of the more strong front to the more weak. Apparently the result puede it be identified to i cut term as a improvement continuous. But ¿what is be better? Seem that the appearance of beings "each time better" is a appraisal subjective humanizes, and it that actually occur is that queen the diversity, the appearance of beings "each time more different".

The explosion of diversity, the to occupy all the niches possible would to arrive to to convert all the matter of the universe in matter live. That moment would dial apparently the limit of the explosion of life, but this would be yet greater, as of fact already occur. The same particles of matter they could be simultaneously elements constituent of more of a entity live, when these entities live form a structure multinivel ¿hierarchic?, as occur with the cells of the skin of a human, a human and a community of human.

"The Nature, wrong that to him weigh to Darwin, not evolution toward the primacy of the better (¿better according to what criterion, for other part?). The Nature base its energy in the diversity. Need that some they will be good and other bad, despaired, sportsmen, sickly, hunchbacked, with lip harelike, happy, sad, intelligent, idiotic, ogoístas, generous, small, large, black, yellow, red, white... Takes advantage all the religions, all the philosophies, all the fanaticisms, all the sanities [...] The fields [...] compounds for brothers twin of the better vine-stock were dying all to the time of the same disease. While that the fields of corn wild, compounds for many vine-stocks different, and each a of they with its own especificidad, and its weaknesses, and its anomalies, were obtaining always to find a antidote for the epidemics." Wells, Edmond, taken of the "Encyclopedia of the to know relative and absolute", gathered for Werber, Bernard. 1993 "The ants" Ed. Square & Janés.

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Selection of groups

The resources limitados produce a selection of the more able that provoke a trend toward the homogeneización of the population. This homogeneización has a aspect negative: a population too similar is more susceptible of exterminio had to to changes sharp in the conditions of the environment.

Given that this is thus, the populations very homogeneas capable of to suffer these alteraciones of the environment finish late or early sufriéndolas and disappearing. Each a of these populations, sight as a sóla entity, is eliminada for a process of "selection of populations".

Other populations, that for the reason that it will be, they will be capable of to stay heterogéneas, is to say, those populations in the that survive "of all a little, though with trend to to survive the better" it is mantendrán live and it is will reproduce in other "populations". In the case of the human, a altruism restringido toward the more necesitados is one of the methods for to obtain it.

The existence of two sexes and possibility of the election of couple provoke the fact of that the criteria of selection of couple, they will be these which it would be, they will be seleccionados. Is to say, those characteristic that the female busquen in the males, and the males in the female, for very absurd that parecieran, they are precisely those that go to proliferar in the population (always that they could be transmitidas genetically, culturalmente, or of some other form to the descendents).

That that the entities elijan largely as "attractive sexual" it will be seleccionado. Now well, is possible that some sub-populations empleen some criteria and other other different. The "atractivos sexual" that furthermore, they will be útiles to the individual for the survival, proliferarán in greater measure in how much, for its own nature, favorecen the combination of aspects positive of the progenitors in the falling. The atractivos sexual útiles it is see seleccionados in a "population of atractivos" compound for all the possible atractivos sexual.

The lack of desire of to have descendents hipotéticamente would be a attractive sexual, but would would have serias difficulties for it be transmitted of parents to children.

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¿Toward where us carry the evolution?

Many authors understand the evolution as a process of increase of complexity, it being materialized this complexity already it will be in the appearance and proliferation of the life, in the interrelationship of the beings live, in the better utilization of the resources, in the thought, in the conscience or in the spirit, with a address but or less constant or growing, but in definitive, a improvement. But that without embargo, for other the evolution not has a address, it is try of a simple adjustment to a environment changing. And this adjustment is the that puede to produce in certain cases, beings intelligent, (when the intelligence is the characteristic more favorable), and in other cases puede be the size or the resistance before radiations harmful the characteristic that they are seleccionadas and master in the population.

For some, the secret of the life and the evolution it is in to accept it as is. [...] The herd of camels it is was composing of a male, two female adult and a suckling. The pervasive eyes of the hunting were monitoring the herd. More late me explained that it is they had decided to to hunt the female more old [...] his desire of to fulfil that day the purpose of its existence and let to the strong for that perpetuate the kind seem to call to the hunting.

It is try of hunting with a level social furthermore of spiritual and of conscience elevadísimo, that live together in communion with the nature, that let its bodies died in the desert for that serve of food to the cruel that after they will be hunted for other; but not doubt that is the weak the that it must to die; not in a act cruel, but of need. (in "The voices of the desert", of Marlo Morgan).

The darwinismo offer a explanation of for what the things they are as they are, is a analysis historical statistic, but that a method of forecast of the future. We know for what the kinds they are as they are: for the survival of the more able (in reality is a tautología: the survival of it that survive); but not we know that kinds will exist in the future: not we know that it will be it more able in the future.

We can to accomplish "forecasts toward back" or "reasonings toward back". Basically it is try of to think thus: "If any thing exist now same, has a probability high of be something very able". Of this form "the beings that exist to the final of a interval of time anyone (for example, in the last year of a century), have a high probability of be the more adapted for this interval i complete" (the century i complete), being the probability so much greater how much greater it will be said interval of time.

But this reasoning is a weapon of double edge. We take a population with a rate of mortality infantile high. All the live they are children of the "winning", of the that pudieros it be reproduced before of to die, for it so much, all the live have characteristic of "winning". Without embargo, many of they go to to die before of it be reproduced, go to be "losing". The theories darwinistas show trends.

There is two cuestones pending: ¿Has a address the evolution? and ¿Exist a factor external that direct the evolution?

Apparently, the evolution produces indefinidamente increases of life and of complexity, and never declines, but not we know if in the future it is puede to produce a completes disappearance of the life, and a new beginning of the process, and it be happened cycles of evolution that peak simpre in the same point.

If we believe that exist a entity that direct of some form unknown the course of the evolution, not would be strange to think that the evolution peak with the Man, had to to the large differences that exist between the Be Human and the rest of the animal, or to the less, that the Man is a kind in the that it is there is materialized a increase of complexity so large that us makes to suspect that has something that to see with the address forced of the evolution.

To this opinion it is puede to oppose the argument: If the man is the be but perfect that puede to produce the evolution according to certain criterion external ¿for that there is men different and not they are all equal?

Not is difficult to rebut this: would be that the Man is the be sought in those characteristic that it is they can to store and to transmit genetically, for example, to have two eyes and not four or none. If a characteristic not is common to all the persons, (as for example not it they are the friendliness front to wrong humor, or a instinct cooperative front to one egotistic), we can to suppose or well that not there is been able evolucionar for not it be stored genetically, or well that its state optimum not is one or other in all the individual, but a certain distribution, already it will be different values for the population and constant for each individual, or a value that varies in the time for each be.

In any case, is very possible that that that seek the evolution directed for a intelligence expresses (if exist) it will be only a characteristic being the rest remaining. For to prove this, we would would have that to find a carácterísitica present in the Be Human that not correspond with something evolutivamente stable, and that without embargo it will be seleccionada.

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The cooperation require of men happy, persons that love the life. Is accurate to find the form of that salgan of its state the zombis that dieron already its life for died and only live for the pereza of not suicidarse, perhaps with a vaga hope in that its situation cambie. [..] Not there is possibility of to discover a system that avoid the wars in our society while the men they will be tán desgraciados that the exterminio mutual you seem less horrendo that the soportar constantly the light of the day. Erich Fromm, (p. 33)

To obtain the happiness, curar a depression, recuperar the love for the life... they are problems complex. Each one attempt to solve the suyos own and attempt to help to to solve them to the persons more nearby. Also there is professional or voluntary of various types that attempt to help to other in this sense. But all coincidimos in to observe large difficulties; the absence of "recetas magic". Translated to the language computer, it is try of the absence of a algorithm. Us we face to a problem that handle a number excessive of variable.

Seem reasonable to accept that it is try of a problem that it is us escapa of the hands. In fact, "The man reasonable it is adapt constantly to the world. The man not reasonable persists in to want adaptar the world to yes. For consiguiente, all progress depend of the man not reasonable." (George Bernard Shaw). The psicólogos or pedagógos not razonables will follow attempting to find the terapia. The computer not razonables, the algorithm. Any person not reasonable never it will be able let of intentarlo, each which with its tools, its knowledge, its ability particular.

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So much the cooperation as the altruism they have been defined in terminos objective, relative to the benefit obtained. For the be human conscious, whose needs they are well complex, not enough with to obtain the maximum benefit. Exist a need superior, in a flat different to the of the benefit own, originada for the desire of "not separatidad". Is something thus as the desire of not sentirse only in the universe, a form of to give sense to the life and to face the death. We suppose that the death conlleva the disappearance of the individual -to the less, when one it is dies, it is dies-. Who knows what pasará after. ¿How to follow obtaining the maximum benefit, when the "i" disappear? Only fit a solution, it is there is of extender the "i", extenderlo in the children, in the familiar, in the friends, in the humanity deposit, in all the sers live or even in all the matter of the universe. Not be only a man; be a cell. Be part of a ideal, to transmit it fundamental of one same in a book, in a project political or in a creation artística.

These alternative seem desesperadas and own of a moribundo, but the need of "not separatidad" is constant to it long of the life. As describe Bertrand Russell and Erich Fromm, of all the roads possible, the love is that that offer the better response. The love is the only attitude before the life capable of to surpass to the death.

"We have arrived to a period of the evolution that not is the stage final. We should pasarlo quickly, because, of it opposite, the majority of we perecerá in the road, and the other will remain perdidos in a bosque of miedos and of doubts. [...] For to find the good road it would be of this desesperación, the man it must ensanchar its heart, as there is ensanchado its brain." Erich Fromm, (p. 98)

If this it would be certain, the society current edificada on the pilar of the property deprive such time not it will be more that a bache in the road of the evolution humanizes toward a society that facilitate the development of the love, between its individual and between all the beings live.

Of all forms, the love it is propose as "the better solution" or even as "the solution for excellence" to the problem of the death. But the death not let of be a problem for be apparently irresoluble. To the end and to the end, the love has sense, the death not.

Los soles se ocultan, y pueden aparecer de nuevo
pero cuando nuestra efímera luz se esconde
la noche es para siempre,
y el sueño, eterno


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LibroRussell, Bertrand. 1ª Ed. 1978 15ª Ed. 1997. La conquista de la felicidad. Ed. Espasa Calpe. Madrid.
LibroFromm, Erich. 12ª Reimpresion. 1991 El arte de amar. Ed. Paidos. Barcelona.
LibroMorgan, Marlo. 1996. Las voces del desierto (Muttant Message Down Under). Ediciones B.
LibroJáuregui, José Antonio. 1990. El ordenador cerebral. Editorial Labor. Un punto de vista muy original acerca del ser humano, la inteligencia y el darwinismo.
LibroRedfield, James. 1997. Las nueve Revelaciones. Ediciones B, S.A. Se podría catalogar como "libro de la nueva era" (new age). Trata acerca de la evolución, muy en la línea de Teilhard de Chardin y la Gestalt, con sugerencias muy útiles para la vida de cada uno.
LibroKropotkin, Pedro. 1970. El apoyo mutuo. Ediciones Madre Terra. Uno de los pocos que se atreve a criticar el darwinismo.
LibroHoyle, Fred. 1983. El universo inteligente. Ed. Grijalbo. Una valiente crítica al darwinismo.
ArtículoCastrodeza, Carlos. 1997. La evolución sin Darwin: La biología ultramontana, en la revista "Revista de Libros", número 9 (septiembre de 1997). Ed. fundación Caja Madrid.
LibroBarnett, S.A. y Otros. 1962. Un siglo después de Darwin 1. La Evolución. Alianza Editorial.
LibroDawkins, Richard. 1994. El gen egoísta. Salvat Ciencia.
LibroTaibo II, Paco Ignacio. 1997. Ernesto Guevara, también conocido como el Ché (Biografía). Ed. Planeta, pp 669-670.

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